Soldiers on campaigns (which could last anywhere from three months to a full year) were supplied with ratios (including barley and sheep), silver as payment, salt, oil and water bottles and were also equipped with blankets, tents, sacks, shoes, jerkins and donkeys or horses. [60], The establishment of the Neo-Babylonian Empire meant that for the first time since the Assyrian conquest, tribute flowed into Babylonia rather than being drained from it.

The only one of the two have been confidently located is known as the Habl al-Shar and stretched from Euphrates to the Tigris at the point the two rivers were the closest, some distance north of the city Sippar. In the melee, Nabopolassar of Babylon successfully revolted with help from Chaldean tribesmen (because of this, the Neo-Babylonian Empire is sometimes referred to as the Chaldean Empire).

The siege was successful and the city endured a brutal sack. [42], Babylon, like the rest of ancient Mesopotamia, followed the Ancient Mesopotamian religion, wherein there was a general accepted hierarchy and dynasty of gods and localized gods who acted as patron deities for specific cities. Scarcely less active was Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon (556–539 bce ), whose great work was the remodelling of the ziggurat, increasing its …
[20], In October or November 615 BC, the Medes, also ancient enemies of Assyria, under King Cyaxares entered Assyria and conquered the region around the city Arrapha. Sinsharishkun failed to capture Babylon and Nabopolassar endured the Assyrian siege of Uruk, repulsing the Assyrian army. Although Babylonian worship of Marduk never meant the denial of the existence of the other gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon, it has sometimes been compared to monotheism. [83], Typical residential houses from the Neo-Babylonian period were composed of a central unroofed courtyard surrounded on all four sides by suites of rooms. [9], The population of Babylonia in this so-called Post-Kassite or Middle Babylonian period was composed of two main groups; the native Babylonians themselves (composed of the descendants of the Sumerians and Akkadians and the assimilated Amorites and Kassites) and recently arrived, and at this point more or less unassimilated, tribesmen (such as the Arameans and Chaldeans). By the 8th century, the constituent groups of the native Babylonians, the main population in the large cities, had lost their old identities and had assimilated into a unified "Babylonian" culture. [26], Nabonidus left Babylonia to campaign in the Levant and then settled for ten years in Tayma (which he had conquered during the campaign) in northern Arabia, another site for worship of the moon. For over a century after its founding, it was a minor and relatively weak state, overshadowed by older and more powerful states such as Isin, Larsa, Assyria and Elam.
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