(b) How many cis-trans isomers are possible for the structural formula you propose? As you might suspect, $\beta$ -carotene, $C_{40} H_{56},$ a precursor to vitamin A, was first isolated from carrots. Show how this flame retardant could be synthesized from a cycloalkatriene and write the structural formula and IUPAC name of this starting material. Acetylene is essential alkyne and the compound finds its use for many different purposes such as arc welding. (a) Alkenes and alkynes are nonpolar molecules. What is its molecular weight? One analogy often used to explain the concept of a resonance hybrid is to relate a rhinoceros to a unicorn and a dragon. Their general molecular formula is C n H 2 n, where n equals any whole number of 3 or greater. Alkenes have the general formula CnH2nand alkynes are CnH2n-2. With the notable exception of ethanol, the acidcatalyzed hydration of alkenes cannot be used to prepare primary alcohols. Draw a structural formula for an alkene with the molecular formula $\mathrm{C}_{5} \mathrm{H}_{10}$ that reacts with $\mathrm{Br}_{2}$ to give each product. (d) According to Markovnikov's rule, in the addition of $\mathrm{HCl}$, $\mathrm{HBr}$, or $\mathrm{HI}$ to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond that already has the greater number of hydrogen atoms bonded to it and the halogen adds to the carbon that has the lesser number of hydrogens bonded to it. (c) 4 -Bromobenzoic acid can be separated into cis and trans isomers. The double bond always has priority in numbering. (b) The bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from renewable resources. Draw a structural formula for the product formed by treatment of 2 -methyl-2-pentene with each reagent. As noted before, alkenes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon double bonds (R2C=CR2) and alkynes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon triple bonds (R–C≡C–R). (a) Ethane(b) Ethanol(c) Bromoethane(d) 1,2 -Dibromoethane(e) Chloroethane, Show how to convert 1-butene to these compounds. As noted before, alkenes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon double bonds (R 2 C=CR 2) and alkynes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon triple bonds (R–C≡C–R). ), Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams, Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials, Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH), Interesting Applications: Rechargeable Batteries (Cell Phones, Notebooks, Cars), Fuel Cells (Space Shuttle), Photovoltaic Cells (Solar Panels), Electrolysis, Rust, Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction, Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k), Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts, *Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Organic Reactions, *Free Energy of Activation vs Activation Energy, *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E), *Identifying Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Carbons, Hydrogens, Nitrogens, *Alkanes and Substituted Alkanes (Staggered, Eclipsed, Gauche, Anti, Newman Projections), *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers), Stereochemistry in Organic Compounds (Chirality, Stereoisomers, R/S, d/l, Fischer Projections).
More than one alkene may give the same compound as the major product. Acid-catalyzed hydration of 2-butene gives 2-butanol.
Check back soon! (a) $1-$ Hexene(b) $2-$ Hexene(c) $3-$ Hexene(d) $2-$ Methyl-2-hexene(e) 3 - Methv(f) $2.3-$ Di, Which of these alkenes shows cis -trans isomerism? Explain why this is so and illustrate your reasoning with specific examples. Write line-angle formulas for all compounds with the molecular formula $\mathrm{C}_{4} \mathrm{H}_{8}$. I was wondering for condensed structural formulas of Alkenes and Alkynes, do the double and triple bonds have to be shown? (b) All $\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}$ bond angles in both LDPE and HDPE are approximately $120^{\circ}$(c) Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a highly branched polymer. (For more information about polymers and plastics, see Section 13.5 "Polymers".) (d) $C i s-2$ -butene and $t r a n s-2$ -butene can be inter converted by rotation about the carbon-carbon double bond. Name the type of reaction that occurs in each step and suggest a reason why the sequence is called $\beta$ -oxidation. (h) Acid-catalyzed addition of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ to an alkene is called hydration. Propose a two-step mechanism for the addition of HBr to 1-methylcyclohexene to give 1 -bromo-1-methylcyclohexane. Benzene, as we have seen in this chapter, is the simplest aromatic compound. More than one alkene may give each alcohol as the major product. Name and draw structural formulas for all alkenes with the molecular formula $C_{5} H_{10^{*}}$ As you draw these alkenes, remember that cis and trans isomers are different compounds and must be counted separately. For mono-unsaturated alkenes, which have only one double bond, the general formula is CnH2n. Pyridine is an analog of benzene in which a CH group is replaced by a nitrogen atom. Explain why this is so and illustrate your reasoning with specific examples.

(a) There are two classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons-alkenes and alkynes. As noted before, alkenes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon double bonds (R 2 C=CR 2) and alkynes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon triple bonds (R–C≡C–R).

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