M. Winkler, ... K. Steiner, in Comprehensive Chirality, 2012.

It is likely that the oxidized cofactor is a prerequisite for catalysis on electrostatic grounds.68 The most prominent natural substrate of HNL is mandelonitrile. Both steps can be performed enzymatically, using a, which includes the activation of cyanide glycosides by β-glucosidase and. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977423001245, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080951676007217, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080447058001746, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012411518700010X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977423002111, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080446558000271, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080951676007102, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095472146505, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977423002123, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124115187000032, Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, 2019, Comprehensive Organic Synthesis II (Second Edition).
J. Org. Cyclic dipeptides (diketopiperazines) played a major role as catalysts for asymmetric hydrocyanations for many years but are nowadays clearly outperformed by metal catalysts not the least because there are manifold possible combinations of metals and more or less sophisticated chiral ligands. Franz Effenberger, ... Siegfried Förster, in Future Directions in Biocatalysis, 2007. Elimination of hydrogen cyanide proceeds in one step without an acyl enzyme intermediate.

However, Oguni and co-workers have reported that addition of 10 mol% of the ligand (29) to the reaction mixture results in a substantial rate enhancement, with good yields being obtained at room temperature <92SL663>. M. Schallmey, ... D.B. Equation for Formation of the electrophile. Methyl benzyl (or phenethyl) ketones 9 give rise to cyanohydrins 10 with good yields and enantioselectivities on treatment with hydrogen cyanide generated in situ from TMSCN and catalysis with flax HNL (LuHNL) isolated from Linum usitatissimum or commercially available MeHNL (isolated from cassava). The mechanism involves an acyl enzyme intermediate. Cu(I)-catalyzed enantioselective direct aldol-type reaction of ketones and allylcyanide (Scheme 19), C.M. Bornscheuer, in Comprehensive Chirality, 2012. In this synthesis, quantitative conversion of an aldehyde into the cyanohydrins product is possible. Name the parent alkane (include the carbon atom of the nitrile as part of the parent) followed with the word -nitrile. Cyanohydrins are also prepared by displacement of sulfite by cyanide salts:[2]. (+/-)-MPGM was hydrolysed by lipase to the corresponding (2S, 3R)-acid, leaving the desired unreacted ester (−)-(2R, 3S)-MPGM. High amounts of enzyme and long reaction times are needed. Similarly, we recently reported82 the preparation of a CLEA from the relatively unknown R-selective hydroxynitrile lyase from Linus usitatissimum (LuHNL) and used it in the conversion of butanone to the R-cyanohydrin with 87% ee.
Figure 6. In 1837, Wöhler and Liebig reported hydroxynitrile lyase activity for the first time as they investigated the formation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN).1 More than a century ago, Rosenthaler used emulsin – a protein containing emulsion derived from bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) – to prepare (R)-mandelonitrile and thereby discovered the first enzyme catalyzed addition of HCN to benzaldehyde in a stereoselective manner2 (Scheme 1). Some defense substances are kept in plants as precursors that do not have biological activities (or defense activities). Acetone cyanohydrin is a source of 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile, an initiator of free radical reactions that is used as a blowing agent (Porophor N).

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